Skip to main content

University Web Accessibility Guidelines

1 Introduction

The W3C Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0 provide a wide range of helpful recommendations to make Web content more accessible. The following BYU Web Accessibility Guidelines (the Guidelines) represent BYU’s effort to implement certain WCAG 2.0 recommendations that will best serve its students and participants without causing an undue burden or fundamental alterations to program and course content and objectives. The Guidelines also address implementation and continuity. BYU recognizes that there will be instances where implementation of some of the Guidelines may not be feasible and reserves the absolute right to deviate from the Guidelines.

2 Web Accessibility Guidelines

2.1 Organization
2.2 Text
2.3 Keyboard
2.4 Links
2.5 Non-Text Content

2.1.1 Each page has a descriptive title that describes the purpose of the page.

2.1.2 Pages are organized using descriptive section headings.

2.1.3 Form controls and interactive controls use descriptive labels, and labels are connected to item where necessary.

2.1.4 At least two ways are offered to find pages on the website or in the course (e.g., table of contents, site map, search field, lists of related pages, etc.).

2.1.5 Navigation order of the page including form elements, links, etc. is sequential and logical.

2.1.6 Navigation is consistent through multiple pages and in the same order each time for repeated items on a page.

2.1.7 Items that have the same functionality on multiple pages are identified consistently (e.g., a “Print Page” link is in the same location on every page).

2.1.8 Headings, lists, tables, and other structures in content are marked up properly. Tables are used with tabular data with properly labeled and correlated headings, headers, data table captions, and summaries.

2.1.9 Content is presented programmatically in a meaningful and logical order.

2.1.10 Page has appropriate language assigned programmatically.

2.1.11 The language of a section of a page is changed programmatically where needed except for proper names, technical terms, and words of indeterminate language, and where words have become part of the vernacular of the surrounding text.

2.1.12 No major code errors exist. In content implemented using markup languages, elements have complete start and end tags, elements are nested according to their specifications, elements do not contain duplicate attributes, and any IDs are unique, except where the specifications allow these features.

2.1.13 HTML/XHTML markup is used to include accessibility including forms, form labels, and frame titles.

2.1.14 Elements do not change when they receive focus nor is there a change of context.

2.1.15 A means is provided to skip repeated information displayed on multiple pages.

2.2.1 Flashing and blinking text does not flash more than 3 times a second and is avoided where possible.

2.2.2 Foreground and background colors in non-bolded text have a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1.

2.2.3 Foreground and background colors in bolded (14 pt.) or large (18 pt.) text have a contrast ratio of at least 3:1.

2.2.4 Color should not be used alone to convey information.

2.2.5 Text is resizable up to 200% without losing information.

2.2.6 Instructions provided for understanding and operating content do not rely solely on sensory characteristics, including sound, to provide understanding. If a sensory characteristic is helpful, use multiple characteristics (e.g., “Select the blue rectangular box in the upper right hand corner labeled ‘Sign In’”).

2.2.7 Means are provided to pause, stop, hide, or adjust frequency of automatically moving, updating, or scrolling content.

2.3.1 All functionality on the page is operable by a keyboard, and standard keyboard operating functions are not changed without explanation to the user of what and why.

2.3.2 Keyboard focus does not get trapped in any part of the content.

2.3.3 Keyboard focus is in logical order.

2.3.4 Keyboard focus is visible.

2.4.1 Links should be meaningful, and function should be determined by the name without surrounding context. If the same name is used for a link that moves to two different places, that is clearly indicated.

2.4.2 Color should not be used alone to identify links, and color should conform to appropriate color contrast ratios. Links, with focus, are typically identifiable using underline in addition to color.

2.5.1 A text equivalent is provided for every non-text element.

2.5.2 Flashing and blinking content does not flash more than 3 times a second and is avoided where possible.

2.5.3 Color should not be used alone to convey identifying content.

2.5.4 All frames are descriptively titled.

2.6 Images
2.7 Audio
2.8 Video/Multimedia
2.9 Inputs/Errors
2.10 Other

2.6.1 All images, graphics, icons, form image buttons, image map hotspots, etc. have appropriate, equivalent alternative text (alt tag). Images that do not contain important content and are merely decorative are given null alt tags.

2.6.2 Color should not be used alone to convey identifying content.

2.6.3 Images of text are avoided unless the image of text is needed because it is critical to the way the content is displayed or it is customizable (e.g., text in a logo). If images of text are utilized, the guidelines of 2.6.1 in this document apply.

2.6.4 Foreground and background colors in non-bolded text have a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1.

2.7.1 For pre-recorded audio-only media, text transcript is provided with any necessary descriptions.

2.7.2 A mechanism is available to turn off or stop the audio, and/or a mechanism is available to control the audio volume independent of the overall system’s volume level. Audio that plays automatically is avoided.

2.7.3 Form buttons and inputs are descriptive and have associated text labels.

2.8.1 A text transcript or audio description is provided for pre-recorded videos without audio. A note is provided: “No sound is used in this video.”

2.8.2 Multimedia video has descriptive transcript or audio description for pre-recorded media.

2.8.3 Captions are provided for all pre-recorded videos.

2.8.4 Synchronized captions are available for live multimedia videos with audio.

2.8.5 Audio descriptions are provided if videos display information necessary or helpful to viewers’ understanding.

2.8.6 A mechanism is available to turn off or stop the audio, and/or a mechanism is available to control the audio volume independent of the overall system’s volume level. Audio that plays automatically is avoided.

2.8.7 Embedded multimedia is identified by text.

2.8.8 Form buttons and inputs are descriptive and have associated text labels.

2.9.1 Changing the setting of any user interface component does not automatically cause a change of context without informing the user. This includes pop-up windows, changes in keyboard focus, etc.

2.9.2 All input elements or interactions are labeled and give instructions including formatting if applicable.

2.9.3 Input errors are clearly identified and explained, including required formatting if applicable.

2.9.4 If an input error is automatically detected and suggestions for corrections are known, then the suggestions are provided to the user, unless it would jeopardize the security of purpose of the content.

2.9.5 For legal, financial, and test data that the user can change, the user is able to reverse, verify, or confirm changes.

2.9.6 Form buttons and inputs are descriptive and have associated text labels.

2.10.1 Pages or applications that have a time limit have the ability to turn off or adjust that time limit unless the time limit is required for the event.